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A Quest to Understanding the History of Food Allergies

When I was thinking of an allergy blog topic to write about for the month of June, my first idea of course was related to food. I was thinking about how food options for people with allergies has changed drastically in the past two decades. I too frequently tell the story of growing up in my small farming community and my parents ordering me allergen-safe food all the way from Toronto— now my local hometown grocery store has it’s own gluten-free section. The overall change in allergy-friendly food options is of course reactive to how the prevalence of food allergies, as well as awareness of food allergies, has increased over the years. Instead of questioning the change in allergy friendly options over the past two decades, I began to wonder about the history of food allergies in general and how they have developed alongside modern medicine.

Happy New Year 2016. Jigsaw puzzle timeline.

To look into this overarching question, like any good millennial I took to the internet.  I quickly found that learning about the history of food allergies wasn’t as easy of a search as searching common egg substitutes in baking. Despite the lack of volume of information, I did find some interesting reads that shed a bit of light on our early understanding of food allergies which I will highlight in this post.

Interestingly enough, the earliest documentation of the adverse effects of food on human’s health came from none other than Hippocrates.  He described adverse food effects in his writing On Ancient Medicine in 400 B.C.E (http://classics.mit.edu/Hippocrates/ancimed.20.20.html):
“For cheese does not prove equally injurious to all men, for there are some who can take it to satiety, without being hurt by it in the least, but, on the contrary, it is wonderful what strength it imparts to those it agrees with; but there are some who do not bear it well, their constitutions are different, they differ in this respect, that what in their body is incompatible with cheese, is roused and put in commotion by such a thing”

Even in 400 B.C.E Hippocrates could empathize with not being able to enjoy the popular dairy product!

One of the most enjoyable reads on the history of food allergies that I found came from a short paper titled A Brief History on Food Allergies, which is actually a small chapter featured in the Super Allergy Cookbook written by Lisa Lundy. In this writing, Lundy describes the earliest recognition of food allergies in modern medicine at the beginning of the 19th century.  At this time doctors were making observations and documenting the connection between food and problematic health issues in their patients. One of the earliest modern writings came from Dr. Francis Hare of Australia. In 1905, Dr. Hare published a 1,000-page book entitled The Food Factor in Disease and sought to explain the relation between food and multiple diseases including: migraines, asthma, gout, headaches, eczema, GI disturbances, hypertension, bronchitis. See any connections to symptoms that we see today from food?

As for coining the term “allergy,” A Brief History on Food Allergies also discusses this moment. Dr. Clemens von Pirquet is given credit as the first to suggest using the word allergy to describe an inappropriate reaction to food or other substances that was typically not considered harmful. Another notable character on the road to developing or understanding of food allergies is Dr. Arthur Coca who not only proved the relation of exposure to food allergens causing a change in a person’s pulse, but went on to found the Journal of Immunology in 1915. These are just a small highlight of some of the early work to building our understanding of modern food allergies.

I would definitely recommend reading Lisa Lundy’s paper: http://www.thesuperallergycookbook.com/PDF/FoodAllergypaper.pdf

What about the history of developing medical treatment for anaphylactic reactions triggered by food allergens? In this day and age, the epinephrine auto-injector is the well-known treatment and lifeline for anyone suffering from an anaphylactic reaction and works to restore plummeting blood pressure that can prove to be very quickly life-threatening.  It turns out that the invention of the epinephrine auto-injector was a spin off a Cold War invention of a hollow-needle that allowed troops to self-inject an antidote to nerve gas! In the 1970’s, inventor Stephen Kaplan saw that simple modifications would allow this to be used by civilians particularly for those suffering from an anaphylactic reaction.  A brief history of the EpiPen® can be read in the article written by Mary Ellen Bowden A Mighty Pen and is featured online in the Chemical Heritage Magazine: http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/media/magazine/articles/31-3-mighty-pen.aspx.

Developing our understanding of food allergies has led to not only placing a focus on treatment and management of allergies but studying the exponential increase in prevalence of allergies in today’s society. A great resource that looks deep into more modern research on this topic is the Nature of Things- With David Suzuki episode “The Allergy Fix”:  http://www.cbc.ca/natureofthings/episodes/the-allergy-fix. In this episode, startling facts are addressed.  This includes the fact that children in today’s society are three times more likely to have food allergies compared to children twenty years ago. Different research hypotheses that have been proposed for this increase are also discussed in this episode including the Hygiene Hypothesis which suggests that societies have become too sanitary and therefore not exposing children to certain germs that can actually be protective to their immune system. An interesting historical research finding that highlights this point mentioned in the episode states that when the Berlin Wall came down those living in the industrial and more “polluted” East side of Germany had a significant lower number of allergies as opposed to those living in “cleaner” west Germany. The Allergy Fix is definitely an episode worth checking out that summarizes where we have gotten to with our modern understanding of food allergies.

Have any interesting facts or findings old or new about food allergies? Feel free to share below!

– Caitlyn P.

Hidden Allergens in Beauty Products

To the average person who does not have allergies, many believe that reading labels does not go beyond those on foods. Many people are surprised to find that when I shop for new make-up or beauty products, I will spend excessive amounts of time in the shopping aisle, struggling to read the fine print of lengthy ingredient labels.

When shopping for new beauty products, it is really important to know exactly what you need to avoid and that you take the time to read labels. The labels on beauty products are often very long and I am always tempted to skim through them. However, too often I find an ingredient I am allergic to.

set of  decorative cosmetic powder, concealer, eye shadow brush, blush, foundation

Personally, I try to stick to the same products that I know are safe, but being a twenty-year-old girl, I often want to try new brands of products. I have tree nut allergies, as well as an allergy to formaldehyde that results in dermatitis. Before finding out I had this allergy, I thought formaldehyde was simply used in laboratories for preservation, but little did I know formaldehyde-releasing chemicals could be found in many low-budget beauty products! To complicate things further, after being diagnosed with this allergy, my dermatologist provided me with a list of 6 chemical names that are actually formaldehyde, since you will never find formaldehyde listed in an ingredients list.

Formaldehyde is not the only allergen that has multiple names. Even with tree nut allergies, there are many different types of nuts and oils that can cause a reaction. Your best bet is to do some research about your allergens so you have a better idea of what ingredients to watch for. Make sure you check the label every time you buy a product, even if you always buy the same brand, because ingredients can change without warning. It is much easier to read the label than to deal with the consequences of a reaction.

Another thing to keep in mind is that just because a product claims that it is hypoallergenic, does not necessarily mean it will be safe for you. The meaning behind a hypoallergenic product is that it has a low chance of causing a reaction. Be sure to check labels regardless!

– Sara S.

Top 10 Tips for Trying a New Food with a Food Allergy

  1. Talk to your allergist

This is a really important step, especially if you are trying a food that you were previously allergic to! Ask your allergist for their own tips and recommendations and ensure that it is safe for you to be trying the food. They can provide information such as how much to try, how to prepare it, etc.

  1. Make sure your auto-injector is nearby

When trying new food, you never know what might happen so it is important to have your auto-injector with you (even though you should have it on you at all times!)

  1. Have a buddy with you

Just in case something was to happen, you should make sure that somebody you know and who knows about your food allergies (and how to deal with a reaction) is with you when you try your new food.

Two beautiful young woman sitting at cafe drinking coffee and looking at mobile phone

  1. Eat at the allergist’s office

When trying a food you were previously allergic to, ask your allergist if you can try it in their office so they are nearby in case you have a reaction. Often they will have no problem with you doing this to make you feel more comfortable.

  1. Double check the ingredients

When trying something new it is very important for you to know exactly what it is you are eating! Make sure to read the label over several times or if you are at a restaurant be very clear with the staff about your allergens and cross-contamination.

  1. Try it more than once

This can be especially important for allergens that you have grown out of. Talk to your allergist about subsequent exposure and the affect it can have on your immune system.

  1. Cook it at home

If you are trying a new food that you can cook yourself, it is probably best to try it this way the first time. That way you can control the environment and kitchen it is being cooked in and know there will be no cross-contamination.

young couple preparing early morning eggs breakfast on stove in home kitchen

  1. Talk to others

To get an idea of what it is like to try new foods talk to other people with food allergies to see what they have tried and how they did it! They could provide some helpful tips or foods they have grown to love.

  1. Get creative

Often those who are at-risk for anaphylaxis have very limited diets but there are so many amazing types of cuisine out there! Try something totally new that is out of your comfort zone – just remember to do it safely!

  1. Don’t be afraid!

Trying new foods can produce a lot of anxiety in someone who is at-risk for anaphylaxis. If you have followed all the steps to ensure your safety, you have a friend nearby and you have your auto-injector ready, there is no need to be afraid.  Read our recent post on help dealing with anxiety.

Lindsay S. 

Take Me Out to the Ball Game – But Don’t Buy Me Some Peanuts or Cracker Jacks!

 

Toronto, Canada - August 8, 2014: Aerial view of the Rogers Center a few hours before of a Blue Jays match

Going to a baseball game is a really fun summer time activity and is a great way to spend an afternoon with friends or family. Among the cheering crowds and home runs, however, there is often an element of risk for those with food allergies – especially those allergic to nuts. Every baseball game I have been to has many fans chomping on a big bag of peanuts and throwing their shells all over the ground. I have had more than one run-in with this and it can be a scary situation! Although there is a very slim chance of any of the nut proteins becoming aerosolized and you ingesting them causing a reaction, it is still anxiety provoking to be sitting with a pile of peanut shells at your feet. Many people will often avoid going to baseball games for this reason alone but if you are vigilant and careful you can still safely enjoy the game!

Before buying your tickets check to see if there is a special “nut-free” section at the stadium. In Toronto, they have special games throughout the season where they offer a nut-free zone for families to sit in where no nuts are allowed. Look at your local team’s website to see if there is a safer option for you.

Since the nuts can’t always be avoided, you need to be aware of your surroundings. When I first get to my seat I do a quick scan of those sitting beside me as well as the rows behind and in front of me to check for any peanuts. If I do see someone eating them I will work it out with my friends to ensure that I am sitting as far away as possible from the nuts.

Two young boys hoping to catch a fly ball at a Cincinnati Reds baseball game

You should also feel okay letting those around you know about your nut allergy. I have been in the situation where a man sitting two seats down from me beside my friend got a big bag of peanuts in the middle of the game. Before I even noticed my friend was kind enough to let the man know of my food allergies and asked if he could not throw his shells on the ground. He was extremely understanding and kept all of the shells contained.

If you plan on eating at the game, there are lots of options that can be allergen safe. The peanuts are almost always sold in a sealed bag so there is little to no risk of cross contamination. To ensure that you are eating safely though, it is best to eat your food in the concourse area just to make sure you aren’t ingesting any stray nut proteins that may be surrounding you. It is also important to wash your hands with soap and water before eating in case you may have touched surfaces that those eating peanuts have as well.

In the end you shouldn’t be avoiding the baseball game in fear of having a reaction! There are some easy ways to make the experience safe and if you are with friends and family who know about your allergies and you have your auto-injector, you should be just fine. So go on and enjoy the 7th inning stretch, do the wave, and cheer on the home team!

Lindsay S.

Fun Food (and Other) Allergy Trivia

Fact One
Top 3 Canadian Cities for Environmental allergies:
1) Edmonton (cats/mold)
2) Toronto (Ragweed)
3) Vancouver (Tree pollen)

(Reader’s Digest Best Health, 2016)

http://www.besthealthmag.ca/best-you/allergies/the-worst-canadian-cities-for-allergies/

Fact Two

Latex is an allergen that has become increasingly more prevalent over recent years. Did you know that the following products can contain latex?

Adhesives, asphalt, toy dolls, balloons, pens, bath mats, bath plugs, books, cameras, binoculars, TV and video equipment, cars, carpets and underlay, champagne corks, chewing gum, computers, confectionery wrappers, contraceptives, conveyor belts, cosmetics, disposable diapers, decorating products, escalator handrails, envelopes, erasers, food storage bags, garden hoses, hot water bottles, inflatable dinghies, mobile phones, stamps,rubber bands, footwear, cling wrap, racquet handles, stickers, postage stamps,  swim goggles, swimsuits, toothbrush, toothpaste, vaccines, computer mouse pads, motorcycle/bike handle grips, and pen grips and tires (Daily Mail U.K., 2014, and Onespot Allergy, 2011).

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2566577/Ive-died-80-TIMES-Woman-40-severe-allergies-risks-death-time-leaves-house.html

Fact Three

One in every 13 kids in the U.S. has a food allergy, which equals about two kids in every classroom. If all of the kids with a food allergy lived in one state, it would be the 19thlargest state (by population) in the U.S. (FARE Inc., 2015).

https://www.foodallergy.org/facts-and-stats

Fact Four
According to Food Allergy Research & Education, African American children were less likely to outgrow their allergy than white children and boys were more likely to outgrow their allergy than girls (2013).

https://blog.foodallergy.org/2013/09/13/who-is-likely-to-outgrow-a-food-allergy/#_ga=1.236233345.1260891111.1461550536

Fact Five

A cluster of bananas is called a ‘hand’, and a single banana is called a ‘finger’. (Daven Hiskey, 2010).

http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2010/06/commercial-banana-plants-are-perfect-clones-of-one-another/

Thoughtful attractive businesswoman looking into the camera with a contemplative expression with her eyeglasses in her hand, head and shoulders portrait over grey background

Fact Six
In the late 1800’s ketchup was used as a tonic to cure people of their ailments (John, Brownlee, 2013).

http://www.fastcodesign.com/1673352/how-500-years-of-weird-condiment-history-designed-the-heinz-ketchup-bottle

Fact Seven
Peanuts are not tree-nuts but rather a legume. They grow underground and are edible seeds enclosed in a pod. (Peanut Institute, 2009).

http://www.peanut-institute.org/peanut-facts/

Fact Eight
Click this link to find out the favourite pizza toppings of 10 countries!
http://recipes.howstuffworks.com/fresh-ideas/dinner-food-facts/favorite-pizza-toppings-in-10-countries.htm

Fact Nine
Apples are in the rose sub-family. (Thomas Elpel, 2015).

http://www.wildflowers-and-weeds.com/Plant_Families/Rosaceae.htm

Fact Ten
Did you know… The average ear of corn has 500 to 1000 kernels, arranged in an even number of rows, typically 16. (Twin Garden Farms).

http://www.twingardenfarms.com/sweet-corn-facts/

Nicole K.

Don’t Eat the Butter Chicken: What I Learned from my Food Allergy Close Call

I was invited to watch a soccer game in a box at a local stadium.

It was a chance to network for a new job and I was feeling a little bit out of my element.

So I said yes to the butter chicken.

toned image of indian chicken curry with basmati rice

The idea of a meal prepared by an Executive Chef in a kitchen sounded safe to me.

I spoke with the Chef, read their ingredients list, and went over all the possible questions for cross contamination. Did you use a clean cutting board? Is there a designated area where you prepare the ingredients? The staff assured me that this was the standard dish they serve to food allergic guests.

I dabbed the sauce on my tongue with my finger before dipping my spoon into the dish (the classic eating-out test for me).

But seconds after the sauce touched my tongue I was administering my Epi-Pen® and was rushed to the hospital by ambulance.

The most terrifying part of the event was the ambulance ride.

The driver was stopped at a traffic light only a block away from the stadium when suddenly there was pounding on the side of the ambulance truck.

A dad was driving his teenage son to the hospital because he was going into anaphylactic shock. He wasn’t carrying his medication on him.

And he had also eaten the butter chicken.

Here’s what I learned from this close call:

  1. Auto-injectors like my Epi-Pen® are a painless tool that will save your life. This was the first time I administered my Epi-Pen® on myself. Before this, I was terrified. I would typically rush myself to the hospital after consuming lots of Benadryl®. Was it denial of being in anaphylactic shock? Fear of doing it wrong? I’m not sure. That moment made me realize how important administering an auto-injector is during a crisis.
  1. Don’t feel pressure to eat out just to feel included. In my professional life, I often have moments where I feel like I fit in and my food allergies don’t exist. I feel like we’re all equals, part of a team, working together to create something awesome. If your friends or colleagues respect and understand your food allergies, compromises can be made to tailor to your needs.
  1. Always have a buddy who knows where your medication is located, at any age. My wonderful friend rushed to my purse seconds after the spoon hit my tongue. She gave me my Epi-Pen® within one minute of the reaction starting. She knew I had severe food allergies and remained calm in the situation. She stayed with me in the hospital and reached out to my emergency contacts.Sketch illustration of two hands holding each other strongly
  2. If you trust a kitchen with preparing your food, request to have something made fresh for you with simple ingredients. Don’t go for the prepared butter chicken from the chef who isn’t working the shift anymore. If the kitchen passes your trust test, choose uncomplicated, simple food. A grilled chicken breast without sauce and one side veggie is much easier than a complex soup with a long list of possible contaminants.
  1. Despite your due diligence, mistakes can happen. The teen who also had a reaction to butter chicken was a season pass holder for the stadium. He always ate the butter chicken at games. But that day the chef used one different ingredient. We can’t predict these things and it’s part of what we live with every day.
  1. Always go to the hospital. I received a second dose of epinephrine when I arrived at the hospital. About two hours after arriving, while in the waiting room, I went into anaphylactic shock again. Always seek physician care even if you have used your Epi-Pen®.

Cashew paste. The morning chef used cashew paste and didn’t follow the kitchen’s recipe.

That night I learned a valuable lesson. We all know that eating brings people together, and in that stressful situation, I wanted to feel included. But it’s never worth the risk.

After that night, I promised myself to never again concede to the pressure to eat out in public.

Do you have any lessons from a close call to add?

– Catherine B.

Parenting a Child with Allergies

 

5-6 years old boy with his parents isolated on white

Parenting Goal:

The goal should always be to have your child become independent in managing their allergies. Of course, when they are younger, they will need more guidance in how this can be done. This is where modeling appropriate behaviour for your child comes in handy (e.g. reading ingredients, carrying auto-injector, etc.).

Tip #1- Be Assertive, not anxious

It is important that you teach your child how to speak up in a confident and polite manner. Encouraging children to speak up for themselves is crucial; they should be comfortable discussing ingredients, the location of their auto-injector, and any symptoms they may experience. Have them start speaking up in familiar settings for practice. In the future, this will help them advocate for their needs in novel situations.

Although the threat of an anaphylactic reaction is a scary thing, try not to use ‘scare’ tactics with your child. Scaring them could lead to anxiety concerns with your child. This applies to caregivers as well! Try your best to remain calm and in control (even in potential emergency situations). Your child should understand the risks of having allergies, but feel confident and capable of managing the risks rather than frightened and overwhelmed.

Tip #2 Foster Independence

We all know the cliché saying, “live and learn.” Yes, we learn through life experiences (even the negative ones). If given a choice, I’m sure that any loving caregiver would choose to have their child avoid unpleasant or stressful situations. However, being overprotective, or a ‘helicopter’ parent doesn’t necessarily help children—especially those with allergies. As stated previously, the ultimate goal is to have your child become independent in managing their allergy. This means that you can slowly have your child assume certain responsibilities when you feel they are ready.  An example of this would be carrying an auto-injector. As an infant/toddler/preschooler this task would most likely be the responsibility of a parent. However, as school year age approaches, parents have to consider alternative arrangements for this. Remember, there is no real ‘correct’ answer about when a child should start to carry their auto-injector independently. You know your child the best so factor in their personality, maturity level, and age. Some tips for having your child remember and carry their auto-injector themselves:

– Have your child choose a safe, secure spot to keep it (e.g. fanny pack, purse, backpack).

– Help them develop a strategy to remind them to bring it (e.g. post-it note on the front door).

– Give them oral reminders. Remember, you don’t want them to become reliant. Like the old expression says: “Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.” Meaning of course, you are better off to teach your child how to manage their allergies than to just manage their allergies for them. The key is for them to develop routines that will promote life-long risk-management and effective problem-solving skills.

I would highly recommend checking out the following links for more info!

Managing Anxiety and Feeling in Control
http://www.allergysupportcentre.ca/managing-anxiety.html

Emotional Impact

Emotional Impact

Emotional Health for Parents of Children with Food Allergies
Emotional Health for Parents of Children with Food Allergies

Emotional and Social Issues
http://www.foodallergy.org/emotional-and-social-issues

Nicole K.

A Girl’s Night Out

iStock_000063167753_SmallWhen you’re getting ready to go out for a night on the town with your girls, I don’t know about you, but my food allergies are the last thing that I want to think about. Regardless, they are always on my mind in order to keep myself safe. As long as you keep yourself in control you can still have fun with your friends and stay safe, even if you consume alcohol.

In my opinion, the most important thing you can do is ensure that your friends who you will be with know about your food allergies. From spending enough time with me, the majority of my friends are well versed on what my food allergies are and what to do in the event that I have an allergic reaction. At some point, I have given them all the lesson on what would happen if I did have a reaction and how to use my EpiPen®.

The ongoing joke with my friends is my constant struggle to find a small purse that is big enough to hold my EpiPen®. When going out, I like to find an over the shoulder bag that is small enough that it will not get in my way, but large enough to hold my EpiPen®. Over the shoulder bags are also great because their size makes them harder to lose.

If you choose to drink alcohol on your night out, I feel that the most important thing that you can do to keep yourself safe when you have food allergies is to keep yourself in control. It is easy to let peer pressure influence you to have a little too much to drink. When your judgement is impaired, the decisions you make regarding food may not be as well thought-out as they should be. For that reason, I always try to have a good meal before I go out so that I am not too hungry later if I find myself in a tricky food situation.

Another big thing to consider is the drinks that you consume. The content of allergens in some types of alcohol are much more obvious than others. Personally, I have peanut and tree nut allergies. I am well aware that liqueurs like Amaretto and Frangelico are tree nut-based. Unfortunately, some alcohols are not as obvious. I recently learned to my surprise that some brands of gin contain almonds! For that reason, it is a good idea to really look into the ingredients of liqueurs before going out. This can be challenging since many do not have an ingredients list on the bottles. Calling the company is the best way to accurately know if a product will be safe for you. To keep my life easy, I like to stick to a few drinks that I know will be safe. That way I do not need to question what will be safe and what is being mixed together.

With these things in mind I think it is very manageable to have a night out with your girls, regardless of your food allergies. Being prepared is the best way to stay safe, but always remember to have fun!

-Sara S.

Explaining My Food Allergies Series: To Children

Child scratching head with question mark on blackboard concept for confusion, brainstorming and choice

I am twenty-five and currently do not have any children of my own. However, as a school teacher, I interact with children on a daily basis. I have taught students in kindergarten all the way up to grade six. Obviously, my language and delivery may have changed slightly, but I never hesitated to talk to my students about my food allergies.

To me, it is important to have this dialogue with them as we spend a lot of time together. With my students, I discuss that my allergens have to stay outside of the classroom. This is my way of minimizing the risk of an allergic reaction. However, if a child brings snap peas as a snack, or a sesame seed bagel for lunch, I allow them to indulge outside in the schoolyard or in the lunchroom.

Another management strategy I teach children in my class is about hand washing. Generally speaking, this is a great discussion to have with children as it addresses good hygienic practices. I encourage my students to wash their hands before and after they eat. Before eating is obvious—it helps to eliminate germs entering your system. After eating is also important as it eliminates the presence of any known allergens since other students and staff in the school may be allergic to foods other than peanuts.

I also discuss the possibility of an emergency situation. The language I use varies depending on the age of students, but I try to stress the importance of notifying another adult as soon as possible. For example, running to another classroom, notifying someone via the P.A system, or just calling for help. With older grades, I discuss common signs and symptoms and the proper use of my EpiPen®. I have some resources, like books and videos, that I read or show to the class to further discuss this topic. I have held Q&A sessions with my students to ensure they get clarification on any information about food allergies.  Interestingly enough, these conversations can often be linked back to the Ontario Health Curriculum.

Some students come to class with a lot of prior knowledge about food allergies perhaps because a family member or friend has an allergy. Keep the age, maturity level, and exposure to this topic in mind when talking to children about allergies. I ensure that I adjust my vocabulary and message accordingly. Here are some sample phrases I’ve used before:

  • “I am allergic to [insert allergen] which means that if I eat these foods I can have a serious allergic reaction. My symptoms might include a rash or trouble breathing.”
  • “If I have an allergic reaction from eating [insert allergen], I may have to use my EpiPen® and go to a hospital for further treatment.”
  • “I hope you understand that [insert allergen] isn’t something that can come into the classroom because I don’t want to risk having an allergic reaction.”
  • “I noticed that you ate a snack with [insert allergen] at recess. Could you please go wash your hands?”
  • “If you notice any signs of an allergic reaction, can you please notify another teacher? What are some ways you could notify another teacher?”

Furthermore, here is an excerpt from the Ontario Curriculum (Grade 1 section):

  • “Students will apply their knowledge of essential safety practices to take an active role in their own safety at school (e.g., inform teacher of allergies, be aware of food safety issues, play in supervised areas, follow safe routines for travelling to and from school)
    Teacher prompt: “What are some things that students may be allergic to?”
    Student: “They may be allergic to nuts and other foods, bee stings, or medicine.”
    Teacher: “What can we do to make the classroom as safe as possible?”
    Student: “We should not bring anything that might have nuts in it to school. People with allergies who need to use medicine if they have a reaction should carry their medicine [epinephrine auto-injector] with them. We should know who has an allergy and what the signs of an allergic reaction are, and we should get an adult to help if someone is having a reaction.” (Ontario Curriculum, 2015).

Nicole K.